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    Journal of Sports Physiology and Athletic Conditioning is a professional peer reviewed journal devoted to  research in exercise and sport physiology. This Quarterly journal was approved to be published with the letter of Journals Commission in Iran by the Deputy for Islamic Azad University (IAU)- Humanities and social sciences http://eval.journals.iau.ir/?view=514
    Journal of Sports Physiology and Athletic Conditioning is following of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and complies with the highest ethical standards in accordance with ethical laws. All accepted articles in this quarterly will be reviewed through similarity software before the acceptance and publication process
    All authors are requested to create and include the ORCID ID in the title page. It is obligatory for the first and the corresponding authors. You can click on the below link to create an account: http://orcid.org
    You can use this manuscript form to write your article  Manuscript Form.docx.docx
     

    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - The role of exercise genomics in preventive medicine
      Mirzahossein  Norouzi Kamareh Fatemeh   Rostamkhani Hossein Shirvani
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Dear Editor Regular exercise and physical activity are effective preventative measures for over 25 chronic medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease and premature death. According to the World Health Organization, physical inactivity is the fourth leading ri Full Text
      Dear Editor Regular exercise and physical activity are effective preventative measures for over 25 chronic medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease and premature death. According to the World Health Organization, physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for death, killing about 3.2 million people annually (1). It is accepted that an individual's behavior is due to three factors: biological/genetic influences, environmental influences, and/or the interaction between biological and environmental factors. There are biological/genetic differences in sexual activity that are distinct from environmental influences on activity (2). Today, the development of genetic evaluation methods throughout the human genome has made it possible for sports scientists and physicians to study genetic factors that play a role in regular physical activity and exercise in preventing chronic diseases. Studies have shown that there is an interaction of the gene × physical activity in reducing the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the following, we will review several studies in this regard. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Comparing the effect of antioxidant and coenzyme 10Q supplementation on some indicators of muscle injury in water polo boys
      Peyman Azarmidakhtian Alireza  Eizadi Mohammad Samadi
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Background: Reactive oxygen species are produced in response to strenuous, prolonged exercise, such as swimming, which results in cell damage. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of antioxidant and coenzyme 10Q supplementation on some indicators of muscle in Full Text
      Background: Reactive oxygen species are produced in response to strenuous, prolonged exercise, such as swimming, which results in cell damage. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of antioxidant and coenzyme 10Q supplementation on some indicators of muscle injury in water polo boys. Materials and Methods: The 24 boy water polo players with at least 5 years of training experience and in the age range of 17 to 23 years were randomly divided into three groups )8 people (of vitamin C, coenzyme Q10 and control. Subjects in the vitamin C group (500 mg of vitamin C tablets) and subjects in the coenzyme Q10 group (300 mg of coenzyme Q10 tablets) were consumed daily with food for two weeks. Trainings were performed for two weeks, 6 sessions per week and 90 minutes per session. Evaluation of CK, LDH and AST indices in the state of at least twelve hours of fasting was performed in three stages: previous, immediately and 24 hours after the completion of the protocol. One-factor analysis of variance test with repeated measures was used. Results: The results showed that CPK decreased significantly after fourteen days of supplementation in coenzyme Q10 group and increased significantly 24 hours after the last training session and in vitamin C group after fourteen days of supplementation and 24 hours after the last training session increased significantly. There was no significant difference in LDH and AST levels between the groups (P <0.05). Conclusion: It seems taking coenzyme Q10 supplements may possibly reduce some indicators of muscle damage after water polo training. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - High intensity interval training and Eryngium billardieri extract consumption on MMP-2 gene expression of visceral fat in rats with metabolic syndrome
      Mostafa  Haji Gholami Shahin Riyahi Malayeri Asal  Ali ziloubaf Hedyeh Hassanpour
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Background: Metabolic syndrome includes a set of metabolic disorders that expose the patient to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of High intensity interval training and Eryngium billardieri extract consumptio Full Text
      Background: Metabolic syndrome includes a set of metabolic disorders that expose the patient to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of High intensity interval training and Eryngium billardieri extract consumption on the expression of visceral fat matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene and insulin resistance in rats with metabolic syndrome. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1- Healthy group 2- Metabolic syndrome 3- Metabolic syndrome + Eryngium billardieri 4- Metabolic syndrome + Eryngium billardieri + HIIT. The training protocol was performed on a rodent treadmill for 8 weeks and 5 sessions per week and 125 mg of Eryngium billardieri extract per kilogram of body weight was given by gastric gavage 5 days a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the eighth week, sample of visceral adipose tissue was taken to examine the expression of MMP-2 gene. Animal blood was collected from the heart. ANOVA were used for data analysis using SPSS 23 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Tukey significance test was used to compare significant differences. Results: Eight weeks of intense intermittent exercise with consumption of Eryngium billardieri extract caused a significant decrease in MMP-2 gene levels and glucose and insulin levels in comparison with the metabolic syndrome group (P <0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it seems that High intensity interval training with the use of Eryngium billardieri extract helps to improve insulin resistance and reduce MMP2. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The relationship between physical mechanics and upper limb injuries in professional badminton players
      Karim   Refahi Abdolrasoul  Daneshjoo Seyed Kazem  Mousavi Sadati Fahimeh   Pourahmad
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Background: Badminton booklet is a high-risk sport in the field of upper limb injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical mechanics and upper limb injuries in professional badminton players. Materials and Methods: 20 prof Full Text
      Background: Badminton booklet is a high-risk sport in the field of upper limb injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical mechanics and upper limb injuries in professional badminton players. Materials and Methods: 20 professional open badminton players from the national badminton league with a history of shoulder injuries with age (28.41 1 1.12 years), weight (71.23 7 7.22 kg), height (36 5 5.88) / 175 m), playing history (4.6 ± 1.5 years), as well as 20 healthy open badminton players with age (27.63 2 2.3 years), weight (68.88 6 6.20 kg), height ( 20.4 ± 177 meters), games (2.3 / 2.5 years), participated in this study. The subjects' shoulder kinematic indices were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square and logistic regression. Results: According to the results of the study, the relationship between physical mechanics and shoulder injuries was observed in both healthy and injured groups (P = 0.003) Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the anatomical factors of cinema are exposed to injury and athletes are considered to be related to anomalies and minor injuries, and because kinematic indicators are among the factors that have been damaged in predicting injury. , Can be considered. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the anatomical factors of cinema are exposed to injury and athletes are considered to be related to anomalies and minor injuries, and because kinematic indicators are among the factors that have been damaged in predicting injury Can be considered. by badminton coaches. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The effect of aerobic training and complementary of vitamin D + omega-3 on metabolic syndrome indices in obese women
      Leyla   Ahmadpour Masoumeh Hosseini Kimia   Moeeni Afshari
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training a Full Text
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training and complementary of vitamin D + omega-3 on metabolic syndrome indices in obese women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 40 women (26/4±7/6 yrs. 32/26±1/78kg/m2 ) Volunteered and they were randomly divided into four groups of 10 persons (aerobic training, vitamin D + omega-3 supplements, aerobic training + vitamin D + omega-3 supplements and control groups) . Aerobic training consisted of 12 week, 3 sessions of 1 hour each session at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (1.6 km of treadmill walking). In supplement groups, supplementation was performed daily with 1000 IU vitamin D and 1000 mg fish oil. Blood samples were taken before and after the research protocol. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis test. Results: 12 weeks of aerobic training plus supplementation significantly reduced lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and the maximum oxygen consumption was significantly increased (p≤0/05). Conclusion: Aerobic training is a safe and effective way to improve metabolic health. Also, combining vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids to modify metabolic syndrome-related indicators can increase the beneficial effects of training. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The effect of supplementation of HMB (beta-hydroxy betamethyl butyrate) and plyometric exercises on performance and body composition of elite parkour athletes in Tehran
      Abdolrasoul  Daneshjoo Motahare Ghane Morteza   Ahmadi
      Issue 3 , Volume 2 , Winter 2022
      Background: Parkour is a sport with alternating energy system in which some items such as lower body explosive power, muscular strength, production of high levels of power in the shortest period of time and high agility are of particular importance.Considering the anabo Full Text
      Background: Parkour is a sport with alternating energy system in which some items such as lower body explosive power, muscular strength, production of high levels of power in the shortest period of time and high agility are of particular importance.Considering the anabolic and anticatabolic properties of beta-hydroxy beta-methyl butyrate (HMB), the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of taking this supplement along with plyometric training on body composition, agility and standing jump power of parkour athletes. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, forty parkour trained men (19-26 years old) have been chosen and randomly categorized into four groups: HMB group, Plyometric group, HMB and Plyometric group and control group. The training program was performed for plyometric and plyometric-HMB group, three sessions per week for eight weeks which took one hour each Session. Also HMB and plyometric-HMB groups consumed three grams of HMB per day for eight weeks. Body composition analysis and Illinois test and standing jump power test were conducted before and after eight weeks of plyometric training and HMB supplementation. Research data was analysed by ANCOVA statistical test. Results: The results of statistical analysis of each group showed that performing eight weeks of plyometric training significantly improves the standing jump power, agility and body fat percentage of the parkour athletes (p <0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that plyometric training increase the standing jump power and agility and reduce the body fat percentage in parkour athletes, but taking HMB supplement along with plyometric training only helps to burn more fat in the parkour athletes. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on carnosine amount and muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes
      Amir Abbasi Shahin Riyahi Malayeri Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of one session of exhaustive activity with supplementation of beta-alanine on the level of carnosine and muscle strength of upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes. Materials and Met Full Text
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of one session of exhaustive activity with supplementation of beta-alanine on the level of carnosine and muscle strength of upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes. Materials and Methods: Twenty bodybuilders were randomly divided into two equal groups of 10 who were taking supplemental beta-alanine and placebo. The experimental group consumed beta-alanine for 21 days and the placebo group received dextrose. The level of carnosine and muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities were measured before and after supplementation. Blood sampling was done before and after supplementation after session of exhaustive workout. Paired t-test and ANCOVA were used for data analysis using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Results: The results of paired t-test showed that in all three variables of lactate, carnosine and growth hormone only in the beta-alanine group, a significant change was observed between pre-test and post-test (P <0.05). And amount of these variables in the post-test showed a significant difference compared to the pre-test. Also, ANCOVA test results indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups of beta-alanine and placebo in all three variables (P <0.05). Conclusion: Beta-alanine supplementation with an exhaustive exercise session increases the level of carnosine in blood and hence increases the fatigue tolerance of bodybuilding athletes and ultimately improves the muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities of athletes and bodybuilders. Therefore, bodybuilders can use this supplement to improve their performance. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males
      Ebrahim Fallah
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males Materials and Methods: We examined 35 resistance-t Full Text
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males Materials and Methods: We examined 35 resistance-trained (1y) male participants (25±2y, 79.8±8.9 kg, 16.1±5.53% body fat) for 9-wk of L-carnitine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on exercise performance, blood lactate, and exercise-induced oxidative stress. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment of a (1) no intervention, no supplement Control (CON, n=12), (2) maltodextrose Placebo (PLA, 2 g/d, n=11) or (3) L-carnitine (LCR, 2 g/d, n=12). Exercise performance, post-exercise blood lactate (BL) and oxidative stress markers were analyzed at weeks 3, 6, and 9. The PLA and LCR groups followed a specific resistance training program (4 d/w, upper body/lower body split) for a 9-wk. Data were analyzed by GLM and presented as mean (SD) or change (95% CI). Primary outcomes were total lifting volume for the bench (BP) and leg press (LP). Results: The results a significant increase in BP lifting volume at wk-6 (139 kg, 95% CI 49.1, 230) and wk-9 (238 kg, 95% CI 132, 343) for LCR. Similar results were observed for LP. We also observed a significant increase in Wingate mean power (63.4 W, 95% CI 30.5, 96.3) and peak power (239 W/kg, 95% CI 104, 374) at wk-9 for LCR as well as a significant reduction in post-exercise BL levels and oxidative stress responses. No differences were observed in body composition. Conclusion: These findings indicate that LCR supplementation improves exercise performance and attenuates the blood lactate and oxidative stress response to resistance training. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - The Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation with Two Consecutive Soccer Games on Stress Oxidative and Muscle Injury Markers in Male Collegiate Soccer Players
      Ehsan Arabzadeh Hossein Shirvani
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 consumption for fourteen days on the response of some indicators of oxidative stress and muscle damage following two consecutive football matches in college players Materials and Methods: for this p Full Text
      Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 consumption for fourteen days on the response of some indicators of oxidative stress and muscle damage following two consecutive football matches in college players Materials and Methods: for this purpose, 24 football players (with an average age of 20.08±12.1 years, a weight of 63.28±65.1 kg and a maximum oxygen consumption of 53.12± 0.98 ml /per /kg of body weight) The three groups were studied over a fourteen-day period. The control group did not receive these supplements and exercise activities, but the experimental groups included the placebo group (300 mg aspartame) and the coenzyme Q10 group (300 mg ubiquinone supplement) during the course in addition to receiving a placebo or supplement the two 90-minute football matches were less than 48 hours apart. Then, according to the research plan, blood samples were collected from the subjects in two stages 24 hours before and after the period and MDA, LDH, CK and AST indices were measured. Dependent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were also used. Results: The results showed a significant difference between serum coenzyme Q 10 supplementation with serum MDA (P = 0.000) and AST (P = 0.006) concentrations from two consecutive football matches, while LDH levels (P = 0.970) and serum CK (P = 0.911) did not change significantly. Conclusion: Overall, the results show that supplementing coenzyme Q10 before and during a two-week match can have anti-oxidant benefits, so it can be recommended to college soccer players. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on gene ICAM–1 expression in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver
      Samaneh  Hadipour Ahmadi Masoumeh Hosseini Abdolrasoul  Daneshjoo
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: Cell adhesion molecules mediate leukocyte responses to inflammation. The purpose of study was to the effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on ICAM–1 in rats with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 rats (200-250 gr) Full Text
      Background: Cell adhesion molecules mediate leukocyte responses to inflammation. The purpose of study was to the effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on ICAM–1 in rats with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 rats (200-250 gr) were randomly divided into four groups (healthy control, steatosis, steatosis + probiotic, steatosis + probiotic + training). To create a fatty liver model, tetracycline at a dose of 100 mg / kg in a volume of 1.5 cc was gavaged daily for two weeks. The training program includes 8 weeks and 5 sessions per week, in the initial week with a speed of 18 meters per minute, time started 10 minutes and every week quickly, 1-2 meters per minute and time was added to 10 minutes. Supplemental groups received 109 CFU / ml of Lactobacillus ramensus by gavage daily for 8 weeks and 5 days per week. Liver tissue samples were taken to examine the expression of ICAM-1 gene. 10 ml of blood was collected from the hearts of rats for ALP testing. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) p05/0≥. Results: The results showed that the aerobic training along with probiotic consumption significantly reduced the expression gene of ICAM-1 and ALP in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Conclusion: It seems aerobic training combined with probiotic consumption improved the expression gene of ICAM-1 and ALP enzyme in the studied samples which can be effective in treating patients with fatty liver disease Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - High Intensity Interval Training on Adiponectin And ALT, AST, ALP Enzymes In obese And Overweight Boys
      Elhamalsadat   Zeinali Saeed   Ganjizadeh Tari Masoumeh  Hehalizadeh
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on adiponectin and AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes in obese and overweight boys. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 22 boys aged 12-14 years old, who were Full Text
      Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on adiponectin and AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes in obese and overweight boys. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 22 boys aged 12-14 years old, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group: mean weight 80.08 ± 16.08, Vo2max was 36.56 ± 2.49, and BMI was 30.27 ± 5.9 and control group: mean weight 67.91 ± 7.95, and Vo2max was 44.4 ± 2.75, 38 and BMI of 60.26 ± 6.3. The experimental group performed eight weeks of HIIT training with 80% HRR intensity at 10 turns of 60 seconds, with 60 seconds rest on exercise bikes for 3 days a week. Blood samples were taken 24 and 48 hours before and after the training, ANCOVA was used for data analysis using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Results: The results showed that HIIT reduced the levels of Adiponectin and AST and ALP enzymes, but this was not significant (P≥0.05). This exercise also reduced ALT and fat percentage and increased Vo2max in subjects, with changes in all three variables significant (P≤0 / 05). Conclusion: It seems HIIT can reduce the percentage of fat and ALT enzyme in children, which can help prevent many metabolic diseases. Also, HIIT can play a role in liver health in overweight and obese children. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweight women
      Masoumeh Hosseini Sahar  Esmaeli Dorani
      Issue 2 , Volume 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweig Full Text
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 women with metabolic syndrome with body mass index of 25-29 / 29 were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four groups (8 people): aerobic training, resveratrol supplementation, training + supplementation and control. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks with 3 sessions of 60 minutes per week, with an intensity of 75-60% of the heart rate. The supplement groups took one capsule containing 400 mg of resveratrol daily. Blood sampling was performed before the start of the research protocol and 48 hours after the last training session. Analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc test were used (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The results showed that aerobic training with supplementation led to a significant decrease in waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, taking resveratrol supplementation along with aerobic training can have a positive effect on the indicators of metabolic syndrome. It is recommended to use aerobic training and resveratrol supplement to improve the physical condition of overweight women. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Effect of MIIT training on visfatin and insulin resistance index ‎in obese girls
      Anahita  Nafisi Bentolhoda  Nasrabadi Mohammadreza Mohseni
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: Visfatin is a new adipocyte which is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue and has similar ‎effects with insulin in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity‏ ‏interval training on visfatin and insulin resi Full Text
      Background: Visfatin is a new adipocyte which is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue and has similar ‎effects with insulin in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity‏ ‏interval training on visfatin and insulin resistance index in obese girls.‎ Material and Methods‏: ‏In this semi-experimental study, 18 obese girls aged 12 -14 years were selected ‎voluntarily and divided into two groups: training and control randomly. The training program included 8 weeks, ‎‎3 sessions a week, each week for 30 minutes running at 70% of the target heart rate in the first week to the fourth ‎week and 75% in the fifth to the eight weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and ‎‏48 ‏hours after the ‎training program and the research variables were measured using specific methods. Analysis of covariance ‎ANCOVA was used. The significance level was considered as p <0.05.‎ Results‏:‏‎.The results of the current paper showed that the visfatin , Insulin resistance index, insulin and maximal ‎oxygen consumption (vo2max) were increased in experimental group, which was significant only for the values ‎of vo2max (P = 0.001). Body weight, body fat percentage, body mass index or BMI and glucose variables ‎decreased in the experimental group.‎ Conclusion‏: ‏‎ Today obesity is become a worldwide health issue and in this research paper we could show that longer ‎training sessions with adequate intensity and volume have beneficial effects and they are suggested to make ‎optimal changes in visfatin levels and reduce insulin resistance in obese girl.‎ Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Long-term effect of endurance training with myoclinic diet and calorie control on fat profile of overweight women
      Maryam  Rasouli Saniabadi Abdolrasoul   Daneshjoo Alireza  Eizadi
      Issue 2 , Volume 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of endurance exercise combined with myoclinic diet and Calorie restriction on the lipid profile of overweight women. Materials and Methods: The method of the present study was semi-experimental w Full Text
      Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of endurance exercise combined with myoclinic diet and Calorie restriction on the lipid profile of overweight women. Materials and Methods: The method of the present study was semi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design. For this purpose, 45 women referred to the Tehran Region 1 Fitness Club with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 and in the age group of 35 to 45 years voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were homogeneously divided into three groups of 15 people based on weight, height and body mass index, including the endurance training group with myoclinic diet, the endurance training group with Calorie restriction and the endurance training group alone. Endurance exercise was three sessions per week for eight weeks. The program, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, starting at 65% of maximum heart rate and increasing by 5% every two weeks until it reached 80% of maximum heart rate in the last week. The recommended diet for the endurance training groups with the Myoclink diet and the endurance training group with the Calorie restriction was given. Endurance training was also asked not to change their normal diet. Subjects' lipid profiles were measured before and after the training protocol. One-way ANOVA use for data analyses. Results: The results showed that in overweight women endurance training combined with myoclinic diet and endurance training combined with Calorie restriction improve the lipid profile (lowering total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increasing HDL) more than endurance training alone. (P ≤ 0.05) ؛ Also, there was no significant difference between the effect of endurance training with myoclinic diet and endurance training with Calorie restriction on improving lipid profile. (P ≥ 0.05) Conclusion: Combining endurance training with myoclinic diet or calorie control can be effective in improving the fat profile. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The Effect of One Session of the Exhaustive Exercise & Caffeine Consumption on Muscle Fatigue Levels & Anaerobic Power of the Professional Female Karatekas
      Reza behdari Soudabeh   Ghasemi Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati
      Issue 2 , Volume 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: The results of some research studies have revealed the positive effect of the caffeine consumption on the muscle fatigue and anaerobic power of the athletes. According to these findings, the purpose of the present research study is investigating the effect o Full Text
      Background: The results of some research studies have revealed the positive effect of the caffeine consumption on the muscle fatigue and anaerobic power of the athletes. According to these findings, the purpose of the present research study is investigating the effect of one session of exhaustive exercise and caffeine consumption on muscle fatigue levels and anaerobic power of the professional female karatekas. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 professional female karatekas who had at least been present in the Karate national team selected camp once, were chosen based on the entrance criteria and the purposive sampling. The samples were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups consisting of 10 individuals (two groups receiving the 6 and 9 milligrams of caffeine supplement for each kilogram of body weight) and the placebo (6 milligrams of dextrose for each kilogram of body weight). The blood samples were taken prior to and after the anaerobic exhaustive test of Cunningham and Faulkner. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The results of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the control and 9-miligram caffeine groups in all variables (P0.005). Finally, the results of the study demonstrated that there was a significant difference resulting from the effect of 6 and 9-milligrams caffeine amounts on the levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, peak, average, anaerobic power and fatigue of the professional female karatekas (P0.005), though, there was no significant difference among the lactic acid, PH and the anaerobic power drop (P×0.005). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it is recommended that female karatekas use the 9-miligram dosage caffeine supplement for reducing the levels of muscle fatigue and increasing the anaerobic power and blood PH. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Effect of Iso–Caloric Sago and Soy Supplementations during 90 Minutes Steady–State Cycling on Subsequent 20–km Cycling Time Trial Performance in the Heat
      Daniel Tarmast Asok Kumar   Ghosh Chee Keong  Chen
      Issue 2 , Volume 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: In Asian countries, like Malaysia, India, and Thailand, sago (SA) is frequently used as daily food. The use of local daily food as supplements over expensive drinks is cost–effective for athletes. Hence, SA (carbohydrate) could be recommended as affordable n Full Text
      Background: In Asian countries, like Malaysia, India, and Thailand, sago (SA) is frequently used as daily food. The use of local daily food as supplements over expensive drinks is cost–effective for athletes. Hence, SA (carbohydrate) could be recommended as affordable nutrition ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of SA, Soy (SO) protein, Sago+Soy (SS) supplementation (combination of carbohydrate and protein), and placebo (PL) during moderate–intensity cycling on subsequent 20–km time trial performance. Materials and Methods: The participants were 12 young male well–trained cyclists from Malaysia. They pedaled at 60% of VO2max for 90 min followed by a 20–km time trial (TT) in the heat. At 20 min intervals during cycling at 60% VO2max, participants consumed either SA, SO, SS, or a PL. The SA, SO, and SS feedings provided 7.5% SA, 7.5% SO, and 7.5% SA+1.5% SO respectively to drink iso–caloric beverages with an estimated energy level ~300 kcal. The average speed and cadence were also recorded during the TT. Results: Time taken for TT for SA, SO, SS, and PL were 42.8±1.8 min, 46.3±2.6 min, 42.7±2.3 min, and 43.2±1.8 min respectively. The TT performance, speed, and cadence of the cyclists did not exhibit any significant differences among the three trials. Conclusion: These data indicated that consumption of sago and soy, and iso–caloric SS (coingestion of sago and soy) during steady–state ride failed to improve the subsequent cycling performance in the heat. Manuscript Document
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    Last Update 5/23/2022