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    Journal of Sports Physiology and Athletic Conditioning is a professional peer reviewed journal devoted to  research in exercise and sport physiology. This Quarterly journal was approved to be published with the letter of Journals Commission in Iran by the Deputy for Islamic Azad University (IAU)- Humanities and social sciences http://eval.journals.iau.ir/?view=514
    Journal of Sports Physiology and Athletic Conditioning is following of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and complies with the highest ethical standards in accordance with ethical laws. All accepted articles in this quarterly will be reviewed through similarity software before the acceptance and publication process
    All authors are requested to create and include the ORCID ID in the title page. It is obligatory for the first and the corresponding authors. You can click on the below link to create an account: http://orcid.org
    You can use this manuscript form to write your article  Manuscript Form.docx

    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Circulating concentrations of the BATokine 12,13-dihydroxy- 9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-diHOME) in different types of exercise training
      Mehdi Zargani Ehsan Arabzadeh Fariba  Aghaei Yosef   Ebrahimpour
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      According to the investigation, Lipokines are a kind of bioactive compounds, derived from adipose tissue deposition, which manages multiple molecular signaling pathways. In recent years, 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecanoic acid (12,13-diHOME), an Oxylipin, has become increa Full Text
      According to the investigation, Lipokines are a kind of bioactive compounds, derived from adipose tissue deposition, which manages multiple molecular signaling pathways. In recent years, 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecanoic acid (12,13-diHOME), an Oxylipin, has become increasingly important in the scientific literature. An increase of 12,13-diHOME in circulation was associated with an improvement in metabolic health, and the action of this molecule seems to be mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT)(1). In fact, Oxylipins are oxidized metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFAs may be received immediately from the weight loss program or from the metabolism of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid(2). Research indicates that Oxylipins are present in every tissue, urine and blood(3). Linoleic acid may be metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) in order to produce 12,13-diHOME(4). Circulating concentrations of BATokine 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic (12,13-diHOME) in rodents and humans have been shown to be elevated following exposure to cold and exercise. In other words, in mice, administration of 12,13-diHOME increased fatty acid absorption by brown/beige adipocytes and skeletal muscle after a session of moderate-intensity training, and in rodents using the same training protocol. Furthermore, investigation suggests that circulating 12,13-diHOME is associated with an increase in mitochondrial respiration capacity in the skeletal muscle. This information improves the opportunity that will increase in circulating 12,13-diHOME with exercising capabilities to assist expand the respiratory capacity of a training skeletal muscle and might increase exercise potential(5,6). Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Effect of resistance training and nanocurcumin supplementation on the expression of FNDC5 and PPARƔ genes in rat muscle tissue
      Amir Maleki Masoumeh Hosseini
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Background: Irisin is released from the Fndc5 protein in muscle cell through physical activity and effects on metabolism through browning of white fat. The purpose of this study was to the effect of resistance training and supplementation of nanocurcumin on the expressi Full Text
      Background: Irisin is released from the Fndc5 protein in muscle cell through physical activity and effects on metabolism through browning of white fat. The purpose of this study was to the effect of resistance training and supplementation of nanocurcumin on the expression of genes of FNDC5 and PPARɣ rat muscle tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, resistance training, nanocurcumin, resistance training + nanocurcumin). The training groups program included 4 weeks, 3 days a week from climbing on a stepladder. Nanocarcmine (80 mg / kg) was given gavage in complementary groups for four weeks daily. FNDC5 and PPARƔ gene expression were measured using the RT-PCR method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with a significant level of P≤0.05. Results: The results showed that resistance training and supplementation of Nanocarcmine significantly increased the expression of the gene of FNDC5 and PPARɣ in muscle tissue of rat (P <0.05). Conclusion: It seems resistance training with nanocurcumin supplementation may stimulate secretion of FNDC5 & PPARƔ from muscle, that has a key role in the metabolism of adipose tissue and the conversion of white tissue to brown fat tissue. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Moderate aerobic exercise and probiotic intake on FOXA1 gene expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver animal model: An Experimental Study
      Shahin Riyahi Malayeri Hamzeh  MohamMadi Firooz Abad Omid   Soleimani Ghaleh Soheila   Azarkhosh
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Background: Fatty liver disease is also known as fatty liver syndrome and is also called hepatic steatosis the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of aerobic exercise and probiotic intake on FOXA1 gene expression in rats with fatty liver. Metho Full Text
      Background: Fatty liver disease is also known as fatty liver syndrome and is also called hepatic steatosis the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of aerobic exercise and probiotic intake on FOXA1 gene expression in rats with fatty liver. Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory study. Thirty-two male wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 in the healthy, steatosis, steatosis + probiotic, steatosis + probiotic +aerobic exercise groups and tested for 8 weeks. The exercise protocol was as follows: in the first week from 10 minutes of running at a speed of 18 meters per minute to the eighth week with 60 minutes of running at a speed of 28 meters per minute. Consumption of probiotics; Relevant groups received 109 CFU / ml of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by gavage daily for 5 weeks and 5 days a week. RT-pcr method was used to evaluate the expression of FOXA1gene. ANOVA were used for data analysis using SPSS 23 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Results: The results showed that eight weeks of aerobic exercise with probiotic intake had a significant decrease on the expression of FOXA1 gene and LDL in rats with fatty liver (P <0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, It seems that aerobic exercise with probiotics intake can improve the liver function of non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The effects of detraining following a regular exercise program on plasma resistin concentrations in asthmatic patients
      Daniel Tarmast
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular exercise and the following detraining on plasma resistin concentration in patients with asthma. Climate change and reduced rainfall have caused allergies and respiratory diseases to develop Full Text
      Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular exercise and the following detraining on plasma resistin concentration in patients with asthma. Climate change and reduced rainfall have caused allergies and respiratory diseases to develop in different people, resulting in 8.9% of adults suffering from asthma by 2025, and 400 million by 2050. Asthma prevalence or symptoms increase as a result of the secretion of some adipokines, such as the hormone resistin. Detraining results when there is insufficient training stimulus, causing the loss of training-induced adaptations. Training cessation or insufficient training can alter the detraining characteristics. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 30 available asthmatics were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. For three months, the exercise group followed a regular training regimen that included three 90-minute sessions each week. Each training session included 60 to 85% of the patients' maximum heart rate on the treadmill or pedaling on an ergometer. The control group did not do any physical exercise in addition to their normal routines throughout the same time period. Blood samples were drawn before the first session, 2 days, and 1 month after the last sessions. Results: Serum resistin levels were not affected by the three-month regular training program or one-month detraining period. They did not differ significantly in the control group either (P >0.05). Conclusion: Despite the benefits of regular exercise being beneficial for all individuals, asthma symptoms in asthmatics were relatively reduced, although these changes were not significant. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Comparison of the effect of selected Pilates exercises, Traband training and weight training on strength and flexibility in elderly women
      Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati Reza Behdari
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Background: Changes in the human body due to the aging process, especially the loss of strength and flexibility of the lower limbs can increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of selected Pilates, Pilates with Traband and Pilates exerci Full Text
      Background: Changes in the human body due to the aging process, especially the loss of strength and flexibility of the lower limbs can increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of selected Pilates, Pilates with Traband and Pilates exercises with both factors such as strength and flexibility of the lower extremities of non-athlete 50-60 years old. Materials and Methods: Thirty participants in this study have been randomly divided into three groups: quasi-experimental, Pilates (10), Pilates Traband (10) and Pilates (10). Before the beginning of the exercises, the strength of the lower limbs and static acceptance and the range of motion of extension and flexion of the thigh have been measured using the test of 30 sitting on a chair, static acceptance and goniometer, respectively. Moreover, all three groups as participated in a course of exercise. These exercises have performed for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 1 hour and have performed after the participants. Data have been analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: As result, all three groups show the significant progress due to exercise but there is not any significant variance between the groups, as none of the methods is not better than other training methods. Conclusion: performing Pilates exercises, Weight and Traband based on the availability of training equipment and facilities, is beneficial for the elderly, and this exercise may reduce the negative physical consequences and consequent treatment costs, and helps to slow down the aging process and is effective in improving the daily activities of the elderly. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The effect of 12 weeks aerobic training on TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and depression in rats with Alzheimer's disease
      Ehsan Mohammadikia Fereshteh Mohebbi Hossein Babaei
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Background: Exercise training plays an important role in combating Alzheimer's disease. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 12 weeks aerobic training on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and also dep Full Text
      Background: Exercise training plays an important role in combating Alzheimer's disease. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 12 weeks aerobic training on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and also depression in rats with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The 40 Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups including saline (S), saline +training (ST), training +STZ (AT) and STZ (A). Alzheimer's was induced by injection of 3 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) into the ventricles of brain. The aerobic training program (each session lasted 30 minutes with 10-12 meters per minute speed) performed for 12 weeks and five sessions per week on a treadmill. The 48 hours after last training session, brain tissue (hippocampal and prefrontal cortex areas) was removed and TNF-α levels were measured by ELISA method. Data were evaluated using the statistical method of analysis of variance at a significant level (P <0.05). Result: TNF-α levels in the hippocampus were significantly higher in group A compared to S (p= 0.010), ST (p= 0.014) and AT (p= 0.041) groups. Moreover, no significant change was observed for TNF-α levels in prefrontal cortex in different groups (p= 0.276). In addition, a significant increase in inactivity duration (FST) was observed in group A compared to other groups (p <0.05) and also a significant decrease in sucrose preference (SPT) was observed in group A compared to other groups. (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that, the positive effects of aerobic training in rats with Alzheimer's disease are exerted partly by modulating the levels of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α in the brain especially the hippocampus. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on carnosine amount and muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes
      Amir Abbasi Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of one session of exhaustive activity with supplementation of beta-alanine on the level of carnosine and muscle strength of upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes. Materials and Met Full Text
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of one session of exhaustive activity with supplementation of beta-alanine on the level of carnosine and muscle strength of upper and lower extremities of bodybuilding athletes. Materials and Methods: Twenty bodybuilders were randomly divided into two equal groups of 10 who were taking supplemental beta-alanine and placebo. The experimental group consumed beta-alanine for 21 days and the placebo group received dextrose. The level of carnosine and muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities were measured before and after supplementation. Blood sampling was done before and after supplementation after session of exhaustive workout. Paired t-test and ANCOVA were used for data analysis using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Results: The results of paired t-test showed that in all three variables of lactate, carnosine and growth hormone only in the beta-alanine group, a significant change was observed between pre-test and post-test (P <0.05). And amount of these variables in the post-test showed a significant difference compared to the pre-test. Also, ANCOVA test results indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups of beta-alanine and placebo in all three variables (P <0.05). Conclusion: Beta-alanine supplementation with an exhaustive exercise session increases the level of carnosine in blood and hence increases the fatigue tolerance of bodybuilding athletes and ultimately improves the muscle strength of the upper and lower extremities of athletes and bodybuilders. Therefore, bodybuilders can use this supplement to improve their performance. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males
      Ebrahim Fallah
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males Materials and Methods: We examined 35 resistance-t Full Text
      Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of Chronic L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Blood Lactate, and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Resistance-Trained Males Materials and Methods: We examined 35 resistance-trained (1y) male participants (25±2y, 79.8±8.9 kg, 16.1±5.53% body fat) for 9-wk of L-carnitine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on exercise performance, blood lactate, and exercise-induced oxidative stress. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment of a (1) no intervention, no supplement Control (CON, n=12), (2) maltodextrose Placebo (PLA, 2 g/d, n=11) or (3) L-carnitine (LCR, 2 g/d, n=12). Exercise performance, post-exercise blood lactate (BL) and oxidative stress markers were analyzed at weeks 3, 6, and 9. The PLA and LCR groups followed a specific resistance training program (4 d/w, upper body/lower body split) for a 9-wk. Data were analyzed by GLM and presented as mean (SD) or change (95% CI). Primary outcomes were total lifting volume for the bench (BP) and leg press (LP). Results: The results a significant increase in BP lifting volume at wk-6 (139 kg, 95% CI 49.1, 230) and wk-9 (238 kg, 95% CI 132, 343) for LCR. Similar results were observed for LP. We also observed a significant increase in Wingate mean power (63.4 W, 95% CI 30.5, 96.3) and peak power (239 W/kg, 95% CI 104, 374) at wk-9 for LCR as well as a significant reduction in post-exercise BL levels and oxidative stress responses. No differences were observed in body composition. Conclusion: These findings indicate that LCR supplementation improves exercise performance and attenuates the blood lactate and oxidative stress response to resistance training. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - The Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation with Two Consecutive Soccer Games on Stress Oxidative and Muscle Injury Markers in Male Collegiate Soccer Players
      Ehsan Arabzadeh
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 consumption for fourteen days on the response of some indicators of oxidative stress and muscle damage following two consecutive football matches in college players Materials and Methods: for this p Full Text
      Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 consumption for fourteen days on the response of some indicators of oxidative stress and muscle damage following two consecutive football matches in college players Materials and Methods: for this purpose, 24 football players (with an average age of 20.08±12.1 years, a weight of 63.28±65.1 kg and a maximum oxygen consumption of 53.12± 0.98 ml /per /kg of body weight) The three groups were studied over a fourteen-day period. The control group did not receive these supplements and exercise activities, but the experimental groups included the placebo group (300 mg aspartame) and the coenzyme Q10 group (300 mg ubiquinone supplement) during the course in addition to receiving a placebo or supplement the two 90-minute football matches were less than 48 hours apart. Then, according to the research plan, blood samples were collected from the subjects in two stages 24 hours before and after the period and MDA, LDH, CK and AST indices were measured. Dependent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were also used. Results: The results showed a significant difference between serum coenzyme Q 10 supplementation with serum MDA (P = 0.000) and AST (P = 0.006) concentrations from two consecutive football matches, while LDH levels (P = 0.970) and serum CK (P = 0.911) did not change significantly. Conclusion: Overall, the results show that supplementing coenzyme Q10 before and during a two-week match can have anti-oxidant benefits, so it can be recommended to college soccer players. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on gene ICAM–1 expression in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver
      Samaneh  Hadipour Ahmadi Abdolrasoul  Daneshjoo
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: Cell adhesion molecules mediate leukocyte responses to inflammation. The purpose of study was to the effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on ICAM–1 in rats with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 rats (200-250 gr) Full Text
      Background: Cell adhesion molecules mediate leukocyte responses to inflammation. The purpose of study was to the effect of aerobic training and probiotic intake on ICAM–1 in rats with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 rats (200-250 gr) were randomly divided into four groups (healthy control, steatosis, steatosis + probiotic, steatosis + probiotic + training). To create a fatty liver model, tetracycline at a dose of 100 mg / kg in a volume of 1.5 cc was gavaged daily for two weeks. The training program includes 8 weeks and 5 sessions per week, in the initial week with a speed of 18 meters per minute, time started 10 minutes and every week quickly, 1-2 meters per minute and time was added to 10 minutes. Supplemental groups received 109 CFU / ml of Lactobacillus ramensus by gavage daily for 8 weeks and 5 days per week. Liver tissue samples were taken to examine the expression of ICAM-1 gene. 10 ml of blood was collected from the hearts of rats for ALP testing. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) p05/0≥. Results: The results showed that the aerobic training along with probiotic consumption significantly reduced the expression gene of ICAM-1 and ALP in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Conclusion: It seems aerobic training combined with probiotic consumption improved the expression gene of ICAM-1 and ALP enzyme in the studied samples which can be effective in treating patients with fatty liver disease Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - High Intensity Interval Training on Adiponectin And ALT, AST, ALP Enzymes In obese And Overweight Boys
      Elhamalsadat   Zeinali Saeed   Ganjizadeh Tari Masoumeh  Hehalizadeh
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on adiponectin and AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes in obese and overweight boys. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 22 boys aged 12-14 years old, who were Full Text
      Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on adiponectin and AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes in obese and overweight boys. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 22 boys aged 12-14 years old, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group: mean weight 80.08 ± 16.08, Vo2max was 36.56 ± 2.49, and BMI was 30.27 ± 5.9 and control group: mean weight 67.91 ± 7.95, and Vo2max was 44.4 ± 2.75, 38 and BMI of 60.26 ± 6.3. The experimental group performed eight weeks of HIIT training with 80% HRR intensity at 10 turns of 60 seconds, with 60 seconds rest on exercise bikes for 3 days a week. Blood samples were taken 24 and 48 hours before and after the training, ANCOVA was used for data analysis using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (p <0.05). Results: The results showed that HIIT reduced the levels of Adiponectin and AST and ALP enzymes, but this was not significant (P≥0.05). This exercise also reduced ALT and fat percentage and increased Vo2max in subjects, with changes in all three variables significant (P≤0 / 05). Conclusion: It seems HIIT can reduce the percentage of fat and ALT enzyme in children, which can help prevent many metabolic diseases. Also, HIIT can play a role in liver health in overweight and obese children. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweight women
      Masoumeh Hosseini Sahar  Esmaeli Dorani
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweig Full Text
      Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol consumption on the indicators of metabolic syndrome in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 women with metabolic syndrome with body mass index of 25-29 / 29 were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four groups (8 people): aerobic training, resveratrol supplementation, training + supplementation and control. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks with 3 sessions of 60 minutes per week, with an intensity of 75-60% of the heart rate. The supplement groups took one capsule containing 400 mg of resveratrol daily. Blood sampling was performed before the start of the research protocol and 48 hours after the last training session. Analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc test were used (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The results showed that aerobic training with supplementation led to a significant decrease in waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, taking resveratrol supplementation along with aerobic training can have a positive effect on the indicators of metabolic syndrome. It is recommended to use aerobic training and resveratrol supplement to improve the physical condition of overweight women. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Long-term effect of endurance training with myoclinic diet and calorie control on fat profile of overweight women
      Maryam  Rasouli Saniabadi Abdolrasoul   Daneshjoo Alireza  Eizadi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of endurance exercise combined with myoclinic diet and Calorie restriction on the lipid profile of overweight women. Materials and Methods: The method of the present study was semi-experimental w Full Text
      Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of endurance exercise combined with myoclinic diet and Calorie restriction on the lipid profile of overweight women. Materials and Methods: The method of the present study was semi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design. For this purpose, 45 women referred to the Tehran Region 1 Fitness Club with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 and in the age group of 35 to 45 years voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were homogeneously divided into three groups of 15 people based on weight, height and body mass index, including the endurance training group with myoclinic diet, the endurance training group with Calorie restriction and the endurance training group alone. Endurance exercise was three sessions per week for eight weeks. The program, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, starting at 65% of maximum heart rate and increasing by 5% every two weeks until it reached 80% of maximum heart rate in the last week. The recommended diet for the endurance training groups with the Myoclink diet and the endurance training group with the Calorie restriction was given. Endurance training was also asked not to change their normal diet. Subjects' lipid profiles were measured before and after the training protocol. One-way ANOVA use for data analyses. Results: The results showed that in overweight women endurance training combined with myoclinic diet and endurance training combined with Calorie restriction improve the lipid profile (lowering total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increasing HDL) more than endurance training alone. (P ≤ 0.05) ؛ Also, there was no significant difference between the effect of endurance training with myoclinic diet and endurance training with Calorie restriction on improving lipid profile. (P ≥ 0.05) Conclusion: Combining endurance training with myoclinic diet or calorie control can be effective in improving the fat profile. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Effect of MIIT training on visfatin and insulin resistance index ‎in obese girls
      Anahita  Nafisi Bentolhoda  Nasrabadi Mohammadreza Mohseni
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Summer 2021
      Background: Visfatin is a new adipocyte which is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue and has similar ‎effects with insulin in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity‏ ‏interval training on visfatin and insulin resi Full Text
      Background: Visfatin is a new adipocyte which is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue and has similar ‎effects with insulin in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity‏ ‏interval training on visfatin and insulin resistance index in obese girls.‎ Material and Methods‏: ‏In this semi-experimental study, 18 obese girls aged 12 -14 years were selected ‎voluntarily and divided into two groups: training and control randomly. The training program included 8 weeks, ‎‎3 sessions a week, each week for 30 minutes running at 70% of the target heart rate in the first week to the fourth ‎week and 75% in the fifth to the eight weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and ‎‏48 ‏hours after the ‎training program and the research variables were measured using specific methods. Analysis of covariance ‎ANCOVA was used. The significance level was considered as p <0.05.‎ Results‏:‏‎.The results of the current paper showed that the visfatin , Insulin resistance index, insulin and maximal ‎oxygen consumption (vo2max) were increased in experimental group, which was significant only for the values ‎of vo2max (P = 0.001). Body weight, body fat percentage, body mass index or BMI and glucose variables ‎decreased in the experimental group.‎ Conclusion‏: ‏‎ Today obesity is become a worldwide health issue and in this research paper we could show that longer ‎training sessions with adequate intensity and volume have beneficial effects and they are suggested to make ‎optimal changes in visfatin levels and reduce insulin resistance in obese girl.‎ Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The Effect of One Session of the Exhaustive Exercise & Caffeine Consumption on Muscle Fatigue Levels & Anaerobic Power of the Professional Female Karatekas
      Reza behdari Soudabeh   Ghasemi Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: The results of some research studies have revealed the positive effect of the caffeine consumption on the muscle fatigue and anaerobic power of the athletes. According to these findings, the purpose of the present research study is investigating the effect o Full Text
      Background: The results of some research studies have revealed the positive effect of the caffeine consumption on the muscle fatigue and anaerobic power of the athletes. According to these findings, the purpose of the present research study is investigating the effect of one session of exhaustive exercise and caffeine consumption on muscle fatigue levels and anaerobic power of the professional female karatekas. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 professional female karatekas who had at least been present in the Karate national team selected camp once, were chosen based on the entrance criteria and the purposive sampling. The samples were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups consisting of 10 individuals (two groups receiving the 6 and 9 milligrams of caffeine supplement for each kilogram of body weight) and the placebo (6 milligrams of dextrose for each kilogram of body weight). The blood samples were taken prior to and after the anaerobic exhaustive test of Cunningham and Faulkner. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The results of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the control and 9-miligram caffeine groups in all variables (P0.005). Finally, the results of the study demonstrated that there was a significant difference resulting from the effect of 6 and 9-milligrams caffeine amounts on the levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, peak, average, anaerobic power and fatigue of the professional female karatekas (P0.005), though, there was no significant difference among the lactic acid, PH and the anaerobic power drop (P×0.005). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it is recommended that female karatekas use the 9-miligram dosage caffeine supplement for reducing the levels of muscle fatigue and increasing the anaerobic power and blood PH. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Effect of Iso–Caloric Sago and Soy Supplementations during 90 Minutes Steady–State Cycling on Subsequent 20–km Cycling Time Trial Performance in the Heat
      Daniel Tarmast Asok Kumar   Ghosh Chee Keong  Chen
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      Background: In Asian countries, like Malaysia, India, and Thailand, sago (SA) is frequently used as daily food. The use of local daily food as supplements over expensive drinks is cost–effective for athletes. Hence, SA (carbohydrate) could be recommended as affordable n Full Text
      Background: In Asian countries, like Malaysia, India, and Thailand, sago (SA) is frequently used as daily food. The use of local daily food as supplements over expensive drinks is cost–effective for athletes. Hence, SA (carbohydrate) could be recommended as affordable nutrition ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of SA, Soy (SO) protein, Sago+Soy (SS) supplementation (combination of carbohydrate and protein), and placebo (PL) during moderate–intensity cycling on subsequent 20–km time trial performance. Materials and Methods: The participants were 12 young male well–trained cyclists from Malaysia. They pedaled at 60% of VO2max for 90 min followed by a 20–km time trial (TT) in the heat. At 20 min intervals during cycling at 60% VO2max, participants consumed either SA, SO, SS, or a PL. The SA, SO, and SS feedings provided 7.5% SA, 7.5% SO, and 7.5% SA+1.5% SO respectively to drink iso–caloric beverages with an estimated energy level ~300 kcal. The average speed and cadence were also recorded during the TT. Results: Time taken for TT for SA, SO, SS, and PL were 42.8±1.8 min, 46.3±2.6 min, 42.7±2.3 min, and 43.2±1.8 min respectively. The TT performance, speed, and cadence of the cyclists did not exhibit any significant differences among the three trials. Conclusion: These data indicated that consumption of sago and soy, and iso–caloric SS (coingestion of sago and soy) during steady–state ride failed to improve the subsequent cycling performance in the heat. Manuscript Document
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